Police Nationale

 

1749 - "Chaque mouvement sera enregistré" - Histoire de la Police France
(Every Move Will Be Recorded)
http://www.mpiwg-berlin.mpg.de/news/features/features-feature14

History of France's Identification (I.D.) & Database Projects
- 1803 Livret (Napoleonic Identity Card)
- 1974 'SAFARI'
- 2008 'EDVIGE'
- 2016 'TES' (Titres Electroniques Sécurisés)


 

 

Bonnet de Police - Calot de Police



The Phrygian Cap
http://ghorbany.com/inspiration/the-phrygian-cap
'It is the cap that Mithra is wearing in the bull-slaying fresco and it even made its way to the French Revolution where it was worn as a symbol of liberty and freedom. But what is the origin of this cap that has survived through all this time?....because of honouring Attis after his castration, the Phrygian cap came to resemble manhood or the phallus.'

Who Is Dagon?
http://mythology.net/others/gods/dagon/


 

 

Garde Chasse (Cor De Chasse)


Linked Research Link: Plaque de Metier de France
http://www.octozone.is/culture/plaque_de_metier.html

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Les Calots Historiques
http://anoca.fr/sites/default/files/2019-01/calots.jpg

Police Municipale

 

 

Prefecture De Police


Police Reserve Civile

Ecusson de la Police

Proecusson - A French company who designes and produces uniform patches for the French Police

Words - Terms - Etymology

 

Publications

Orages N 10 L'oeil de la police - Download [ Telechargement ] PDF

http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Flavio_Borda_D_Agua/publication/312113127_Orages_Litterature_et_culture_1760-1830_n_10_L'oeil_de_la_police/links/586f96e108ae329d62160081/Orages-Litterature-et-culture-1760-1830-n-10-Loeil-de-la-police.pdf

 Research Papers

 Research Paper 2017 -  “European national police systems and metropolitan realities”, in Devroe, E., Edwards, A., Ponsaers, P. (eds.).
http://www.researchgate.net/publication/313824915_Devroe_E_Ponsaers_P_2017_European_national_police_systems_and_metropolitan_realities_in_Devroe_E_Edwards_A_Ponsaers_P_eds_Policing_European_Metropolises_The_Politics_of_Security_in_City-Regions_London
'the French Police were viewed as a limb of the government in a police state (Jones & Johnstone, 2011)....The French system stands out as the most developed example of centralisation and the State's wish to control its citizens. .....'the Minister of Justice has no power on the judicial police force, which is under the command of the Minister of Interior.'

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Crime and State Surveillance in Nineteenth-Century France
University of Chicago
http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/pdfplus/10.1086/229271

'This study presents a structural perspective that indicates that, as emerging nation-states consolidated power, they also extended surveillance, and this deterred cirme. The proposition is tested in France, between 1865 and 1913..

'This, and historical evidence, suggests that state surveillance expanded less from a specific intent to control crime that from a broader interest in repressing "dangerous classes," new repertoires of social protest, and politcal challenge to the state.'

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Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology - 1952 - Volume 43 - Issue 3 - Article 18
An Early Concept of the Modern Police State in Nineteenth Century France
Howard C. Payne
http://scholarlycommons.law.northwestern.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=4036&context=jclc

'every Direction Gengerale would be supplied  with  ample  secret  funds  for "occult agents" of police....'

'Against such a background of pyramided authority, the proposed police reforms of 1852 become more meaningful in retrospect. The existing prefectoral system was now to be overlaid with a new superstructure of political police designed to become the mainstay of government:'

......Today it is not only a question of the police keeping internal order by means of repression, but it must above all instruct the Central Power on all facts and tendencies, so that the government will be able to foresee and direct, to take the initiative in all matters and properly to govern France.

'An efficient police, the proposal declared, "must depend solely upon the government," and "must not . . . retain either sentiment or fatherland. Eyes, ears and hands are all that it needs." Such a corps would give the state "a political police which would inform it on everything that might occur, even in the smallest localities," strangling all subversive movements in embryo.'

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Book: French Criminal Justice - A comparative Account of the Investigation and Prosecution of Crime in France -
Dr. Hodgson - University of Warwick.
'In France, the police act on behalf of the state, whereas in England and Wales, they act on behalf of the public - the notion of policing by consent [100]'. P86
http://bit.ly/2qXyXf7

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The Napoleonic ‘police’ or ‘security state’ in context
http://www.cairn-int.info/article-E_NAPO_091_0001--the-napoleonic-police-or.htm

'Two recent publications in English have approached a definition of the Napoleonic regime of social order. Building on Godechot’s conclusions of 1951 that the French Empire was “perhaps the precursor of the modern police states”, Michael Sibalis in his 2001 article “The Napoleonic Police State” takes out the ‘perhaps’ categorically making the First Empire a police state. Howard G. Brown, in Ending the French Revolution, (2006), has come up with the softer term of ‘security state’....'

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European Court of Human Rights News
http://echrnews.wordpress.com/2011/12/09/nonidentifiable/

'In France, there is no requirement for uniformed and plainclothes police officers to display their name or their administrative number or to show their police card upon request.'

'Citizens filming [French] police officers committing violent acts are automatically committing the infraction of complicity (art.222-33-3 of the penal code) which is punished by up to 20 years in prison in case of torture.

'If they publish the video, it is an offense that carry a maximum penalty of 5 years in jail and a €75,000 fine (art.222-33-3 of the penal code).'

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France Criminalises Research on Judges (by Malcolm Langford is a Professor of Public Law) 2019
https://verfassungsblog.de/france-criminalises-research-on-judges/
'In March, France made a controversial move and became the first country in the world to explicitly ban research on individual judicial behaviour. It is now a criminal offence to ‘evaluate, analyse, compare or predict’ the behaviour of individual judges. The maximum sentence is a remarkable five years in prison.'

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